September 29, 2022

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Calendar of the day – August 25

It happened on a day of August 25

* 413 years ago (1609) the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei presented the first optical telescope to the Venetian doges. In the construction of his telescope, with which he studied the Moon seeing it 30 times closer than with the naked eye, Galileo used a series of lenses, an idea taken over and improved by Issac Newton, who built the first mirror telescope

* 162 years ago (1860) the first diplomatic agency of the United Principalities was established in Paris, the head of the agency being Ioan (Iancu) Alecsandri, the younger brother of the writer Vasile Alecsandri (25.VIII/6.IX). NOTE: Some sources mention the date of 26.VIII/7.IX

* It is 160 years (1862) since the unification of the health services of Moldova and Wallachia, their administration being entrusted to the doctor Carol Davila (25.VIII/6.IX)

* 93 years ago (1929), at the Paris-Orly airport in the French capital, the first catapult airplane cabin was tested, invented by the Romanian Anastasie Dragomir (b. 1896 – d. 1966), an early version of the ejection seat. NOTE: Some sources mention the date of 28.VIII.1929

* 78 years ago (1944), Paris was liberated from the Nazi occupation by the allied troops. The liberation of Paris took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the surrender of the German garrison on 25 August

* 68 years ago (1954) Romania’s first participation in the European Athletics Championships took place in Bern, where Iolanda Balaș (1936 – 2016) won the silver medal in the high jump, with a jump of 1.65 m

* 31 years ago (1991) the Minsk Parliament adopted the Law on State Independence of the Republic of Belarus. The first presidential elections were held in 1994, and the most recent, on August 9, 2020. Alexander Lukashenko was the only one who served as the country’s president

Anniversaries – Commemorations

– 1849: G. Dem was born. Teodorescu, folklorist, publicist, teacher and politician; contributions to the introduction of scientific criteria for collecting and interpreting folklore; the author of an important collection of folklore, “Poezii populare romane”. The foundation of the Carol I University Foundation (d. 1900) is linked to his name

– 1873: Lucia Sturdza Bulandra, actress, theater director and teacher, was born (d. 1961)

– 1902, 25.VIII/7.IX: Camil Baltazar was born, poet, memoirist, publicist, essayist and translator (d. 1977) – 120 years old

– 1905: Ion Nestor, archaeologist and historian of antiquity, was born; in parallel with the activity in the field of archaeology, he also dealt with the fundamental problems of the formation process of the Romanian people, completing the results of the archaeological excavations with the interpretation of the information transmitted by the Byzantine historians; corresponding member of the Romanian Academy since 1955 (d. 1974)

– 1907: Bogdan-Petriceicu Hasdeu, philologist, writer, folklorist, historian and publicist, died; he has the credit of having put Romanian philology on a scientific basis; revealed the autochthonous background of the Romanian language (the Dacian substratum); designed a vast dictionary of the Romanian language (Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae, elaborated up to the word “man”), designed as an encyclopedia of linguistic, philological, folkloric, historical, geographical and literary knowledge; one of the founders of comparative folklore in Romania; titular member of the Romanian Academy since 1877, vice-president of this forum on several occasions (b. 1838, in Cristineşti/Hotin, today in Ukraine) – 115 years

– 1917: Ion Diaconescu was born, national-peasant politician, anti-communist fighter; caught in the wave of arrests of PNT leaders, he was a political prisoner between 1947 and 1964; first vice-president of PNŢCD (1990 – 1995), president of PNŢCD and CDR (1996 – 2000); president of the Chamber of Deputies (1996 – 2000) (m. 2011) – 105 years

– 1923: Prose writer Dumitru Manoileanu was born; his name appeared in literature after he had made himself known in rugby stadiums as a player, coach or sports columnist (d. 1992)

– 1929: ÎPS Pimen Zainea was born (first name at baptism: Vasile), Archbishop of Suceva and Rădăuţilor (since 1991) (d. 2020)

– 1930: Actor Andrei Csiky (Csiky András) was born

– 1935: Mihail Sabin (pseudonym of Mişu Sachter), poet, playwright and publicist, was born (in Chernivtsi, today in Ukraine) (d. 1975)

– 1936: Director Cristian Munteanu was born; artistic director at the Romanian Broadcasting since 1962; after December 1989, he became the first editor-in-chief of the Theater Editorial Office, which until then had been a section of the Cultural Broadcasting Office; over a thousand radio plays in the Radio library bear his signature (m. 2008)

– 1936: Actor Sebastian Papaiani was born (d. 2016)

– 1940: Mihai Pelin, historian, prose writer and publicist, was born (in Chernivtsi, today in Ukraine) (d. 2007)

– 1945: Ion Petreuş was born, singer of the Maramureş folk song (d. 2002)

– 1946: Arnold Rosé, Austrian violinist originally from Romania (b. 1863, in Iasi) died

– 1954: Composer, cellist and teacher Şerban Nichifor was born

– 1975: Romulus Dianu, prose writer, publicist and translator (he translated from Feodor Dostoevski, Bertolt Brecht and Georges Duhamel) died; worked in diplomacy, being Nicolae Titulescu’s collaborator for ten years and accredited to the League of Nations (b. 1905)

– 1977: The actor Dorin Sireteanu (b. 1901) died – 45 years old

– 1980: The philosopher Dumitru D. Roşca died; full member of the Romanian Academy since 1974 (b. 1895)

– 2007: Val Condurache (the literary pseudonym of Valeriu-Gheorghe Condurache), literary critic, essayist, theater critic, poet and publicist, died; former director of the “Moldova” Museum Complex in Iasi (b. 1950) – 15 years

– 2010: The writer Baruţu T. Arghezi, son of Tudor Arghezi (b. 1925), died

– 2016: The French designer of Romanian origin Sonia Rykiel died; nicknamed “Queen of Knits” (b. 1930)

– 2017: The painter Radu Costinescu (b. 1931) died – 5 years

– 2020: Emilian Popescu, theologian and university professor, died; outstanding researcher in the field of ancient and Christian history, archeology and epigraphy, as well as Byzantine spirituality; honorary member of the Romanian Academy since 2006 (b. 1928)

– 2021: The fencer Ileana Gyulai-Drîmbă-Jenei, world champion with the Romanian foil team in 1969, twice bronze medalist at the Olympic Games (in 1968 and 1972), died; for 15 years, he was constantly in the world women’s fencing hierarchy (b. 1946) – 1 year

EXTERNAL EVENTS

– Beijing: Chinese Ministry of Defense Monthly Press Conference (online)

– Vatican City: Visit of Hungarian President Katalin Novák, who will be received in audience by Pope Francis

– Caracas, Venezuela: Trial of human rights activist Javier Tarazona, accused of terrorism (25 – 31 Aug.)

-Lima, Peru: Subpoena to testify of President Pedro Castillo for alleged obstruction of justice

– Paris: The Economic Study of the OECD – Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development on South Africa is presented

– Paris: Marking 78 years since the liberation of Paris from Nazi occupation in World War II

– Washington: Release of second quarter GDP data (second estimate)

– Uruguay: Events to celebrate Uruguay’s Independence Day

– Atlanta, USA: Golf – American Circuit, PGA Tour – Tour Championship (Aug. 25 – 28)

Anniversaries – Commemorations

– National Day of the Republic of Uruguay; the anniversary of the proclamation of independence – 1825

– 1530: Ivan IV (nicknamed “the Terrible”), grand prince of Moscow and all of Russia (1533-1547), first tsar of Russia (1547-1584) (d. 1584) was born

– 1744: Johann Gottfried Herder, German writer and philosopher, was born; created the ideological premises of the “Sturm und Drang” movement (Storm and Wind), a movement that paved the way for the affirmation of classical literature in Germany (d. 1803)

– 1819: James Watt, Scottish engineer and inventor, died; perfected the steam engine (b. 1736)

– 1822: Sir Frederick William Herschel, British composer and astronomer of German origin, pioneer of astrophotometry, died; on 13.III.1781 he discovered the planet Uranus; discovered the movement of the solar system relative to the other stars in the Milky Way (b. 1738) – 200 years

– 1841: Swiss doctor Emil Theodor Kocher was born; research on the thyroid gland; performed the first thyroidectomy (1876), thus inaugurating endocrine surgery; Nobel Prize in Medicine 1909 (d. 1917)

– 1860: Johan Ludvig Heiberg, Danish writer, historian and literary critic (b. 1791) died

– 1867: Michael Faraday, English physicist and chemist, died; one of the founders of the theory of electromagnetism (b. 1791) – 155 years old

– 1880: Robert Stolz was born, Austrian composer (operettas, film music) and conductor (d. 1975)

– 1900: Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, English biochemist of German origin, was born; discovered the “K cycle” (the set of oxidation phenomena occurring in carbohydrate metabolism); Nobel Prize for medicine in 1953, together with the American Fritz Albert Lipmann (d. 1981)

– 1900: Friedrich Nietzsche, German writer and philosopher (b. 1844) died

– 1908: The French physicist Henri Becquerel died; discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity in uranium (1896); Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, together with his compatriots Pierre and Marie Curie (b. 1852)

– 1911: The Vietnamese general Vo Nguyen Giap was born, the military leader of the two wars in Vietnam in the second half of the last century, known as “Napoleon the Red”, hero of Vietnamese independence; the armies led by him drove the French out of Vietnam and then forced the Americans to abandon efforts to prevent the establishment of a communist regime (d. 2013)

– 1918: Leonard Bernstein, American conductor and composer, was born (d. 1990)

– 1922: The Israeli violinist Ivry Gitlis, one of the most important musicians of the last century, was born; founder of numerous festivals; former student of George Enescu (m. 2020) – 100 years old

– 1923: Álvaro Mutis Jaramillo, Colombian poet, novelist and essayist, was born (d. 2013)

– 1930: British actor and film producer Sean Connery was born (d. 2020)

– 1938: The Russian writer Alexandr Kuprin (b. 1870) died

– 1940: Belgian baritone José Van Dam was born (real name: Christened Joseph van Damme)

– 1940: The Chinese athlete Zhuang Zedong was born, triple world table tennis champion and representative of “ping-pong diplomacy”, which led to a rapprochement between Beijing and Washington in the 70s of the 20th century (d. 2013)

– 1947: Keith Tippett, English jazz pianist and composer, born (d. 2020) – 75 years old

– 1952: Charles M. Rice, virologist and American university professor, was born; 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine shared with Harvey J. Alter and Michael Houghton for discovery of hepatitis C virus – 70 years

– 1954: The English performer and composer Elvis Costello (real name: Declan Patrick MacManus) was born

– 1961: British chemist Morris William Travers died; in 1898 he discovered, together with William Ramsay, the chemical elements krypton, xenon and neon (b. 1872)

– 1969: American geologist Harry Hammond Hess (b. 1906) died

– 1974: Frédéric Belinsky, French jazz guitarist, was born

– 1984: American writer Truman Capote (real name Truman Streckfus Persons), one of the most important writers of the 20th century, author of novels, short stories and screenplays, died (b. 1924)

– 2002: Dorothy Hewett, Australian writer (b. 1923) died – aged 20

– 2012: The American astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first earthling to walk on the moon, died on July 20, 1969 (he was the commander of the “Apollo 11” ship, launched to the moon from the Cape Kennedy base, on July 16, 1969); he was seconded by his colleague Edwin Aldrin (b. 1930) – 10 years

– 2018: British choreographer, dancer, mime and director Lindsay Kemp (b. 1938) died

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